Abdomen: the third region of the body of a bee enclosing the honey stomach, true stomach, intestine, sting, and reproductive organs
Acarine disease: The name of the disease caused by the tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi). See Tracheal mite
After-swarm: a small swarm which may leave the hive after the first or primary swarm has departed. These after-swarms usually have less bees associated with them than the primary swarm
American foulbrood: a brood disease of honey bees caused by the spore-forming bacterium, Paenibacillus larvae. The spore stage of the bacterium can remain viable for many years, making is difficult to eliminate the disease
Apiary: a collection of hives cared for by a beekeeper. Also known as a bee yard
Apiculture: the science of the-beekeeper
Apis mellifera: genus and species of the Western honey bee originating in Europe and Africa and now located around the world
Apitherapy: the medicinal use of honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom
Bait hive – A hive or box placed preferably in an elevated location used to attract and hopefully capture swarms
Bee blower: a motorized blower used as one. method to remove. bees from honeycombs. Typically frames are not. removed from supers prior to using the blower
Bee bread: a fermented mixture of collected pollen and nectar or honey, deposited in the cells of a comb. Pollen is the primary pollen source for. bees and is used especially by the nurse bees to produce royal jelly to feed the young larvae
Bee brush: a brush or whisk broom used to gently remove bees from combs
Bee dance: a series of movements made by bees to let other bees know the direction and distance of food or a new home
Bee escape: a device used to remove bees from honey supers or buildings by permitting bees to pass one way but preventing their return
Bee metamorphosis: the three stages through which a bee passes before reaching maturity: egg, larva, and pupa. During the pupal stage, large fat reserves are used to transform both the internal and external anatomy of the bee
Bee space: 6 – 9mm space between combs and hive parts in which bees build no comb or deposit only a small amount of propolis. Bee spaces are used as corridors to move within the hive
Bee veil: special netting worn by beekeepers to protect their face from bee stings
Bee venom: the poison secreted by special glands attached to the stinger of the bee
Beehive: a home for bees
Beekeeper: a person who takes care of bees
Beeswax: Wax secreted from glands on the underside of bee abdomens, then molded to form honeycomb
Boardman feeder: a device for feeding bees that consists of an inverted jar with an attachment allowing access to the hive entrance
Bottom board: the floor of a beehive that all the other components build upon
Brace comb: a small bit of wax built between two combs or frames to fasten them together. Brace comb is also built between a comb and adjacent wood, or between two wooden parts such as top bars
Brood chamber: The area of the hive where the brood is reared; usually the lowermost hive bodies; contains brood comb
Brood nest: Area of hive where bees are densely clustered and brood is reared
Brood: a group of immature bees before they have emerged from their cells
Burr comb: a bit of wax built upon a comb or upon a wooden part in a hive but not connected to any other part
Capped brood: pupae whose cells have been sealed with a porous cover by mature bees to isolate them during their nonfeeding pupal period; also called sealed brood
Cappings: a thin layer of wax used to cover the full cells of honey. This layer of wax is sliced from the surface of a honey-filled comb
Castes: a term used to describe social insects of the same species and sex that differ in morphology or behavior. In honey bees there are two castes, workers and queens. The drones are a different sex and therefore not included
Cell: the hexagonal compartment of comb built by honeybees
Chilled brood: Bee larvae and pupae that have died from exposure to cold. This typically occurs in spring when the colony is expanding rapidly and on cold nights there aren’t enough bees to keep the brood warm
Chunk honey: honey cut from frames and placed in jars along with liquid honey
Clarifying Tank: any tank or holding vessel that is use to temporarily store honey while the wax and other material separate from the honey
Clarifying: removing visible foreign material from honey or wax to increase its purity
Cluster: a large group of bees hanging together, one upon another
Colony: a group of many bees who live and work together in a hive
Comb foundation: A sheet of beeswax embossed on each side with the cell pattern
Comb honey: honey produced and sold in the comb. It is produced either by cutting the comb from the frame or when the comb is built in special frames which allow for its easy removal
Comb: a grouping of 6-sided cells built from beeswax that is used to store food and baby bees
Creamed honey: honey which has crystallized under controlled conditions to produce a tiny crystal and a smooth texture. Often a starter or seed is used to help control the crystallization
Crimp-wired foundation: comb foundation which crimp wire is embedded vertically during the manufacturing of the foundation. The wire increases the strength of the foundation
Cross-pollination: the transfer of pollen from an anther of one plant to the stigma of a different plant of the same species. Honeybees are excellent pollinators
Crystallization: the formation of sugar crystals in honey. Syn. Granulation
Cut-comb honey: comb honey cut into various sizes, the edges drained, and the pieces wrapped or packed individually
Dextrose: one of the two principal sugars found in honey; forms crystals during granulation. Also known as glucose
Dividing: spltting a colony to form two or more colonies
Division board feeder: a wooden or plastic compartment which is hung in a hive like a frame and contains feed for bees
Double screen: a wooden frame with two layers of wire screen to separate two colonies within the same hive, one above the other. An entrance is cut on the upper side and placed to the rear of the hive for the upper colony
Draw Comb: To shape and build, as to draw comb from a sheet of foundation
Drawn Comb: Comb that has been drawn, normally from foundation, but which is empty and can now be used again
Drifting of bees: the failure of bees to return to their own hive in an apiary containing many colonies. Young bees tend to drift more than older bees, and bees from small colonies tend to drift into larger colonies
Drone comb: comb measuring about four cells per linear inch that is used for drone rearing and honey storage
Drone layer: a queen who is incapable of fertilizing eggs. As a result all brood produced is drones
Drone: a male bee. His only job is to mate with the queen
Dysentery: A malady of adult bees marked by an accumulation of excess faeces or waste products, and by their release in and near the hive
European foulbrood: an infectious disease which only affects the brood of honey bees and is caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pluton
Extracted honey: honey removed from the comb
Extractor: device used for removing honey from hive frames
Fermentation: the process of yeast utilizing sugar as a food, and as a byproduct, produce alcohol. Honey typically does not have enough moisture for fermentation to occur
Fertile queen: a queen, which has been inseminated, naturally or artificially, and can lay fertilized eggs
Field bee (forager, flying bee): Worker bee that travels outside the hive to collect nectar, pollen, water and propolis, a waxy substance that bees use in the hive as cement
Foulbrood: A general name for infectious diseases of immature bees that cause them to die and their remains smell bad. The term can refer to European Foulbrood (EFB) or American Foulbrood (AFB) both of which are notifiable diseases, in the same way as foot and mouth disease
Frame: A wooden rectangle that surrounds the comb and hangs in the hive. It may be called Hoffman, Langstroth or self-spacing because of differences in size and widened end-bars that provide a bee space between the combs
Fructose: the predominant simple sugar found in honey
Fume board: a rectangular cover the size of a super which has an absorbent material on the underside. A chemical is placed on the material to drive the bees out of supers for honey removal
Fumigilin-B: an antibiotic used in the prevention and suppression of nosema disease
Glucose: see “Dextrose “
Grafting tool: a needle or probe. designed for transferring larvae from worker cells to a queen cells
Grafting: removing a worker larva from its cell and placing it in a queen cup in order to have it reared into a queen
Granulation: the formation of sugar crystals in honey which may cause it to turn solid
Hive body: A single wooden rim or shell that holds a set of frames. When used for the brood nest, it is called a brood chamber; when used above the brood nest for honey storage, it is called a super. It may be of various sizes and adapted for comb honey sections
Hive stand: a structure that supports the hive
Hive tool: a metal device used to open hives, pry frames apart, and scrape wax and propolis from the hive parts
Hive: the structure used by bees for a home
Honey flow: Period when bees are collecting nectar in plentiful amounts from plants
Honey house: building used for extracting honey and storing equipment
Honey stomach: a specially designed organ in the abdomen of the honey bee used for carrying nectar, honey, or water
Honey: a sweet viscid material produced by bees from the nectar of flowers, composed largely of a mixture of sugars dissolved in about 17 percent water. It contains small amounts of mineral matter, vitamins, proteins, and enzymes
Honey: sweet food made by bees from nectar
Honeybee: an insect who lives in a colony and collects nectar and pollen to produce honey
Honeydew: a sweet liquid excreted by aphids, leaflhoppers, and some scale insects that is collected by bees, especially in the absence of a good source of nectar
Increase: to add to the number of colonies, usually by dividing those on hand
Inner cover: a lightweight cover used under a standard telescoping cover on a beehive
Instrumental insemination: the introduction of drone spermatozoa into the genital organs of a virgin queen by means of special instruments
Invertase: an enzyme produced by the honey bee which helps to transform sucrose to dextrose and levulose
Larva: the second stage in the growth of a new bee
Laying worker: a worker which lays unfertilized eggs, producing only drones, usually in colonies that are hopelessly queenless
Mating flight: the flight taken by a virgin queen while she mates in the air with several drones
Mead: honey wine
Metamorphosis: the transformation process from a pupa to an insect
Migratory beekeeping: the moving of colonies of bees from one locality to another during a single season to take advantage of two or more honey flows
Nectar flow: a time when nectar is plentiful and bees produce and store surplus honey
Nectar guide: color marks on flowers believed to direct insects to nectar sources
Nectar: a liquid found in flowers and collected by bees and made into honey
Nectaries: the glands of plants which secrete nectar, located within the flower or on other portions of the plant (extrafloral nectaries)
Nosema disease: An infectious disease of adult bees caused by a microsporidian fungus, Nosema apis
Nucleus: a hive of bees which consists of fewer frames than a typical hive and may be smaller in size. A nucleus usually consists of two to five frames of comb and used primarily for starting new colonies or rearing or storing queens; also called and commonly referred to a nuc
Nurse bees: young bees, three to ten days old, which feed and take care of developing brood
Observation hive: a hive made largely of glass or clear plastic to allow for the observation of bees at work
Package bees: a quantity of adult bees (2 to 5 pounds), with or without a queen, contained in a screened shipping cage with a food source
Paenibacillus larvae: the bacterium that causes American foulbrood
PDB (Paradichlorobenzene): crystals used to fumigate stored combs against wax moth
Pheromone: a chemical scent released by insects and other animals to communicate messages to other of their species
Play flight: short flight taken in front of or near the hive to acquaint young bees with their immediate surroundings
Pollen basket: a flattened depression surrounded by curved hairs, located on the outer surface of a bee’s hind legs and adapted for carrying pollen to the hive
Pollen substitute: Mixture of water, sugar and other material, such as soy flour or brewer’s yeast, used for bee feed
Pollen supplement: a mixture of pollen and pollen substitutes used to stimulate brood rearing typically in early spring to encourage colony expansion
Pollen trap: a device for removing pollen loads from the pollen baskets of incoming bees
Pollen: a powder found on flowers and used in plant reproduction. Bees use pollen as a food source
Pollination: the transfer of pollen (from the male part) of one flower to the stigma (female part) of another flower. Pollination is needed for the growth of many fruits
Primary swarm: the first swarm to leave the parent colony, usually with the old queen (see secondary swarm)
Propolis: a sticky substance collected by bees from trees and other plants which they use to seal cracks in the hive. Also known as bee glue
Pupa: the third and final stage of a new bee’s development before it becomes a mature bee
Queen cage: a small cage in which a queen and three to five worker bees are confined for shipping and introduction into a colony
Queen cell: a special elongated cell in which the queen is reared. It is above an inch or more long and hangs down from the comb in a vertical position
Queen clipping: removing a portion of one or both front wings of a queen to prevent her from flying
Queen excluder: metal or plastic device with spaces that permit the passage of workers but restrict the movement of drones and queens to a specific part of the hive
Queen: the only female in the colony who lays eggs to make baby bees
Rendering wax: Melting old combs and wax cappings and removing refuse to partially refine the beeswax. May be put through a wax press
Robbing: stealing of nectar, or honey, by bees from other colonies which happens more often during a nectar dearth
Royal jelly: a very nutritious substance produced by the glands of worker bees and fed to the brood and queen
Sacbrood: a viral disease which affects the larva of honey bees
Scout bees: worker bees searching for a new source of pollen, nectar, propolis, water, or a new home for a swarm of bees
Secondary swarm: a smaller swarm which may occur after the primary swarm has occurred
Skep: a beehive made of twisted straw without movable frames
Slatted rack: a wooden rack that fits between the bottom board and hive body. Bees make better use of the lower brood chamber with increased brood rearing. Congestion at the front entrance is reduced which can also reduce the swarming tendency
Slumgum: the refuse from melted comb and cappings after the wax has been rendered or removed
Smoker: a tool which produces smoke and calms the bees to make it easier and safer for the beekeeper to work with the colony
Solar wax melter: a glass-covered insulated box used to melt wax from combs and cappings by the heat of the sun
Spur embedder: a handheld device used for embedding wires into foundation with the purpose of reinforcing the foundation
Stinger: a part of the bee that is used to iinject venom (poison) into its enemy. A worker bee can only sting once and then she dies
Streptococcus pluton: bacteria that cause European foulbrood
Sucrose: principal sugar found in nectar
Super: A hive body used for honey storage above the brood chambers of a hive
Supersedure: the natural replacement of an established queen by a newly reared queen in the same hive
Surplus honey: honey removed from the hive which exceeds that needed by bees for their own use
Swarm cell: queen cells usually found on the bottom of the combs before swarming
Swarm: a large group of bees and a queen that escape their hive in search for a new home
Swarming: the natural process of propagating a colony of honey bees
Terramycin: an antibiotic used to control American and European foulbrood
Uncapping knife: a knife used to shave or remove the cappings from combs of sealed honey prior to extraction. These can be heated by steam or electricity
Uniting: Combining one honey bee colony with another
Venom: a poisonous liquid secreted by bees defending their colony
Virgin queen: a queen which is not mated
Wax glands: glands that secrete beeswax, which are in pairs on the underside of the last four abdominal segments
Wax moth: An insect whose larvae feed on and destroy honey bee combs
Winter cluster: a ball-like arrangement of adult bees within the hive during winter
Wired foundation: Comb foundation with vertical wires embedded in it for added strength
Worker bee: a female bee whose reproductive organs are undeveloped. The majority of the honey bees are worker bees and they do all the work in the colony except for laying fertile eggs
Worker bee: a female bee that has many jobs in the hive